Culprit: Issues and Advocacy Center (The Center)
Article Citation: Ubac, Michael Lim, “Another survey gives Manny, Loren high hopes”, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 9 May 2010
“Another survey gives Manny, Loren high hopes
RUNNING THIRD IN THE SURveys of the two leading pollsters, the Nacionalista Party tandem of Senators Manny Villar and Loren Legarda are turning to a third survey outfit for hope on the eve of Monday’s elections.
Giving them a glimmer of hope is the Issues and Advocacy Center (Center), whose latest survey showed the NP running mates in a tight race with their Liberal Party rivals—fellow senators Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III and Mar Roxas II.
According to the Center, the nationwide voters’ preference, “Pulso ng Pilipino,” conducted from April 26 to May 2 involving 2,400 respondents showed Villar in a neck-and-neck race with Aquino, who leads by a “mere three percentage points.”
Aquino had 28 percent, Villar 25, Gilbert Teodoro of the ruling Lakas-Kampi-CMD third at 20 percent and ousted President Joseph Estrada of the Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino fourth at 18 percent.
In a press statement, NP spokesperson Gilbert Remulla said the figures are a “very good indication.”
“It just goes to show that Senator Villar is not as far behind as being projected by other polling firms. Given NP’s extensive machinery and highly organized ground troops, our opponents may just be in for a big surprise,” Remulla said.
The results of the Center surveys differ from those earlier released by both Social Weather Stations (SWS) and Pulse Asia, both of which showed that Villar had fallen to third place behind Aquino and ousted President Estrada and Legarda also dropping to third behind Roxas and Makati Mayor Jejomar Binay.
Remulla quoted reports circulating in the Internet and other media which alleged Aquino’s apparent influence on both firms—with stockholders and founders of SWS and Pulse Asia being close relatives of Aquino.
Remulla said that Villar’s nationwide grassroots organization would deliver the votes for their candidate and would assure them of victory come Election Day. It added that they have the command votes from their huge national and local network.
Tight VP race
In the vice presidential race, the Center had Roxas maintaining his lead over closest rival Legarda.
Roxas got 34 percent against Legarda’s 29 percent, or a difference of 5 points. As in its previous survey, Binay was in third place at 25 percent, the Center said.
Ed Malay, the Center’s director, explained at a press briefing in Quezon City that the vice presidential race remained “close” with only 5 percent separating Roxas and Legarda.
Malay said that the Center, after analyzing the results of the latest survey, viewed Legarda as “fast emerging as an alternative vice presidential candidate of political leaders nationwide who do not want to support Roxas, Edu Manzano or Binay.”
Malay said local political leaders would always look for a “winnable candidate” to support.
“And Legarda provides these political leaders with that opportunity, especially those who do not like Roxas,” said the pollster, noting that Legarda had topped the senatorial elections in 1998 and 2007.
Malay also said the race for the presidency has been reduced to four candidates—Aquino, Villar, Teodoro and Estrada.
“It’s statistically impossible for other presidential aspirants to even get close to the race leaders as the voters may have already decided on their choices,” said Malay, referring to other presidential candidates Richard Gordon, Jamby Madrigal, Nicanor Perlas, Eddie Villanueva and JC de los Reyes.
“Villar keeps Noynoy in sight with strong political support on the ground,” said Malay.
“(Villar) is in a good position to unleash the potential of his nationwide organization to generate the needed votes that will assure him of victory,” said Malay.
Malay also said that as far as “command votes” were concerned, Villar was leading considering the huge national and local network of NP, which Malay considered as the most organized party.
On the vice presidential race, Malay said that what this pre-poll survey of the Center “shows is that Legarda who lacks the resources available to Roxas was able to keep pace with the vice presidential race leader by launching a spirited campaign nationwide which saw her go on the campaign trail almost on a daily basis.””
Culprit: Prospero Pichay, Jr.
Article Citation: Casayuran, Michael S. “Pichay confident ‘Gibo’ will win, cites high-level strategy”, mb.com.ph, 15 April 2010
“Pichay confident ‘Gibo’ will win, cites high-level strategy
The pro-administration Lakas-Kampi-CMD is confident that its standard bearer, former defense secretary Gilbert “Gibo” Teodoro would win because of his high-level political campaign focusing on his strategies to develop and improve the country.
Former Rep. Prospero Pichay, administration party vice president, told Senate reporters during a press briefing at the Senate that the party is hoping that the 15 percent undecided votes based on pre-poll surveys would go for Teodoro who is “running the most decent campaign, campaigning on a higher plane without resorting to gutter language.’’
That 15 percent is equivalent to seven million votes in relation to the country’s registered number of voters which is 52 million, he said.
Pichay based his assumption of a Teodoro victory on the alleged use of “acidic” language and personal attacks by the Liberal Party (LP) led by presidential bet, Sen. Benigno Simeon Aquino III, and the Nacionalista Party (NP) led its presidential bet, Sen. Manuel Villar.
Despite reports of high-profile defections of some of his partymates to the LP or the NP, Pichay said the party had expected a “10 percent fatality during this campaign but fortunately, there is only two percent but we don’t know what will happen in the next few days.’’
“But we are still the dominant party,’’ he said.
Pichay pointed out that the first and second rankings of the LP and NP presidential bets are expected to do down as the May 10 presidential election approaches and ‘’Teodoro’s ranking would go up.’’
‘’We have a chance to go up, especially with the top two (Aquino and Villar) engaged in mudslinging. I believe we can catch up. He (Teodoro) is zeroing on the economy, health agriculture, agrarian reform and education,’’ Pichay said.
Teodoro is fourth in the election surveys with former President Joseph Estrada ranked third.
The most high-profile defection made was that of Albay Gov. Joey Salceda who defected last Wednesday to the camp of Aquino who subsequently claimed there would be more defections from the administration party to the LP.
Adel Tamano, an NP senatorial candidate, said Salceda’s defection disproves propaganda by another political party that Villar is the secret candidate of President Arroyo. Text messages have given Villar a new name: Villarroyo.
He then urged that the attacks between the NP and the LP should stop “and we go back to issues.’’
As the election campaign comes to a close, Tamano said the candidates should stick to the issues because using gutter language is a disservice to the people.
The mudslinging reached its peak over the alleged fake psychiatric report on Aquino whose “existence’’ raised the question of whether or not Aquino is capable of handling sensitive national issues and problems.
While it stressed that the psychiatric report was false, the LP contested the claim of Villar that he was a poor boy and that Villar’s brother died because the Villar family was too poor to buy him medicines.
Pichay said the differences between Teodoro and Speaker Prospero Nograles on supposedly party matters are more personal than political party issues.”
Culprits: Dick Gordon, Chito Diaz (yung nag-debate kay Dr. Mangahas on ANC)
Article Citation: Aurelio, Julie M., “Gordon files damage suit vs 2 survey firms”, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 22 April 2010
“Gordon files damage suit vs 2 survey firms
MANILA, Philippines – Presidential candidate and Senator Richard Gordon has filed a P650,000 damage suit against two survey firms for their allegedly false and misleading survey results which have not shown Gordon as among the top contenders.
In a 26-page civil complaint filed before the Quezon City regional trial court, Gordon also asked the court to issue a temporary restraining order and a preliminary injunction against Social Weather Stations Inc. and Pulse Asia Inc.
Gordon was represented by his lawyers Chito Diaz and Carlo Tagalda.
“While it is true that surveys are part of our freedom of expression, such freedom is not without limits especially where, as in this case, public interest during election periods warrants that these survey companies at least publish credible and correct survey results,” Diaz said.
He claimed that the poll firms have been using long discredited and obsolete methodologies.
Tagalda, for his part, said they were not after the awarding of damages and that they only wanted the public to cast their vote based on campaign platforms and not publicity.
“We want the public not to base their votes on the candidates’ winnability, but on their track records and platform,” Tagalda said.”
QUEZON CITY, Philippines – Thank you Mr. Senate President, Mr. Speaker.
Allow me to express the following thoughts regarding the proceedings tonight as well as related relevant circumstances which has brought us to this point.
We have reached a critical juncture in our constitutionally mandated duty to begin the official canvass and eventual proclamation of the incoming President and Vice President of our great country. It seems to me that everything that has been discussed in this committee as well as in other venues since the end of the elections have been attempts to unduly cast these past elections as dishonest, disorderly and (in)credible.
This representation’s personal opinion is that we will end up subverting the sovereign will and collective wisdom of the majority of the Filipino people. Allow me to point out that Juan de la Cruz is not stupid. If he truly believes that these elections were dishonest and only served to rob him of his true will, we would now be seeing him and thousands, if not millions, of Filipinos demanding the righting of this wrong. But where is he, Mr. Senate President and Mr. Speaker? Where is Juan de la Cruz and the rest of the Filipino nation? I submit that they are observing their supposed leaders obfuscating and creating a mockery of the expression of his true will as heroically displayed in the oppressive heat of May 10th.
I grant, Mr. Senate President and Mr. Speaker, that of the numerous (albeit still a minority) allegations of electoral fraud, there will be some which will merit further scrutiny and investigation. I also expect that some of these cases will be decided in favor of those who currently feel they have been aggrieved. This representation’s point in bringing this up is to ask the question, have we allowed ourselves as the Canvassing Board for the Presidential and Vice Presidential elections to be deceived by these allegations into thinking of a more systemic and malicious failure of the national elections?
Allow me to digress for a moment, Mr. Senate President and Mr. Speaker, to comment on the conduct of the hearings of the House Committee on Electoral Reforms and Suffrage. This is important because while these hearings should not have any bearing on this Committee’s constitutional mandate, it is not easy due to human nature for us not to consciously or unconsciously transpose our feelings about those hearings into what we are here to do.
By and large, despite the stated objective of being in aid of legislation, let us call a spade a spade and characterize the hearings of that Committee as being a venue for grandstanding. The people who have been invited by that Committee as resource persons to shed light on alleged irregularities have come to those hearings unprepared, made accusations bereft of plausible evidence and have been exposed for their ignorance.
My apologies for this breach of parliamentary courtesy but I have to say that the actuations of the good Representative of the 2nd District of Quezon City, the Honorable Mary Ann Susano have irritated this representation no end, to say the least. Representative Susano’s possession of what she claims are genuine Compact Flash (CF) cards as evidence is highly irregular, again, to say the least. I challenge this House of Representatives to look into the circumstances by which Representative Susano came to possess these CF cards without prejudice to other remedies that other law enforcement institutions may seek for the possession of stolen property if we are to take the good Representative’s word of the genuineness of these cards. Let us remind ourselves that as duly elected representatives and officials of our Republic that it is our sworn duty to uphold the law and report violations of such. We should hold ourselves to a higher standard and to the good Lady from Quezon City – you should have reported this irregularity to the appropriate authorities as soon as you became aware of it and not use it for personal gain.
Furthermore, I question the true intent of Representative Susano in bringing her allegations to the House Committee. If you seek answers to your allegations, it behooves you to listen and hear the explanations of those whom you accuse of complicity in your allegations. It does not speak well to resort to labeling those answering your allegations as “defensive” nor acting like a prima donna for having your supposed bombshell witness wait while those you accuse are trying to present answers to your allegations.
Did I digress too much? My sincere apologies Mr. Senate President and Mr. Speaker.
Let me just close the loop with my digression kind Gentlemen and provide some unsolicited advice to the so-called resource speakers/complainants at Representative Locsin’s Committee. If you are not at that Committee to truly aid in legislation then you are just wasting your time, your esteemed colleagues’ time and that of the Filipino public by being there. Seek justice in the proper venue. In the meantime, let me remind you that you were elected to your positions for a term of 3 years, not 2 years and 10 months. Make us proud and serve your constituents to the best of your ability in the remaining period of your term. Who knows, your constituents might look back at that service and you might win the next time.
Again my apologies Mr. Senate President and Mr. Speaker. Allow this representation to return to his prior thought and refresh your memories with the question that I had posed – have we allowed ourselves as the Canvassing Board for the Presidential and Vice Presidential elections to be deceived by these allegations into thinking of a more systemic and malicious failure of the national elections?
This representation’s personal opinion is that there has been no credible evidence manifesting systemic and widespread fraud during these elections that has been brought forward. Why do we keep on asking, is it possible when we are presented with logical explanations to issues that are raised? We had expected and we had been told to expect kinks and glitches in this first ever automated elections in our country. Why do we act like we’re surprised? Despite all the warnings beforehand, did we still expect an error free conduct of the elections? When we ask a question such as – is it possible – in the majority of instances, the answer will be – yes it is. Does that prove anything? No. Almost anything is possible as much as it is possible that those who lost in these elections ACTUALLY LOST.
If I may Mr. Senate President and Mr. Speaker, I would also like to bring up something that we may have been overlooking. That is that by asking these questions now, we are indicting the respective Electoral Oversight Committees of both Houses of Congress – and by extension, OURSELVES. Let us be fair. By asking all these questions now, we are admitting to the Filipino people that we were remiss in our duty to ensure the sanctity of the electoral process. For that, I call on the leaders of Congress and I move for an immediate resolution apologizing to the Filipino people for this dereliction of duty.
Mr. Senate President and Mr. Speaker, let me also touch on the matter of thresholds. This Committee has asked many questions today on acceptable thresholds relating to various aspects on the conduct of these elections. My impression, Mr. Senate President and Mr. Speaker, has been that no matter what explanations or answers we get from our resource persons, no answer and no explanation seems to be good enough. This being the case, we run the risk of further tainting the credibility of these elections with our mule-headed and adversarial mindsets. Do we really think that we are better than everyone else that an answer that does not conform to our expectations is hogwash? Kung ganoon din naman, Mr. Senate President and Mr. Speaker, ano pang silbi ng mga resource persons na mga ito kung hindi natin sila pakinggan? Having said that, let me make clear that it is our duty to pursue accountability from those who should be made answerable for the egregious mistakes made in the conduct of these elections. I submit, however, that this is not the time nor the place for that.
In closing, this representation warrants that our actions here today have cast unnecessary doubt and uncertainty in a lot of our countrymen’s minds. It also seems to this representation that as I mentioned earlier, a certain number of our colleagues will never be satisfied that these elections were generally free and fair. With this being the case – we are left with two options – the first being to do a full manual count of all the election ballots cast and the second being the initiation of the appropriate action to hold new elections.
With that, Mr. Senate President and Mr. Speaker, I call for the suspension of the National Canvass for President and Vice President and put to the House leadership a motion to convene the House of Representatives immediately to pass a resolution urging the Commission on Elections to declare a failure of elections and call for new elections at the soonest possible time. Out of parliamentary courtesy, I will just encourage our colleagues in the Philippine Senate to consider a similar action.
That is my representation, Mr. Senate President and Mr. Speaker. Thank you.
Point of order: a term of parliamentary law and procedure which refers to an interjection during a meeting by a member, who does not have the floor, to call the attention of the chair to an alleged violation or breach of the assembly’s or meeting’s rules of order.
Source: duhaime.org (highlight mine)
MAKATI, Philippines – The hearings of the House Committee on Suffrage and Electoral Reforms have taken on the feel of an inquisition with the COMELEC and SMARTMATIC-TIM on the receiving end. I have to say that I felt very aggrieved (and I’m not even a participant) when “Governor” Ace Barbers managed to shut James Jimenez up as he was putting kibosh to the election fraud allegation of losing Ang Kapatiran senatorial bet Grace Plazo.
Barbers interrupts James by raising a point of order to which the esteemed Rep. Thomas Dumpit, Jr. replies – “I am sorry Governor Barbers, you are out order as you are not a member of this Committee.”
HA! IN MY DREAMS!!!
As Ron Cruz of ANC Tweeted – “i didn’t even know a GOVERNOR may be able to ask for a point of order.”
The over-matched Rep. Dumpit actually sustains Gov. Barbers and proceeds to call on the next loser, err complainant to “vent”. I guess that’s what they call the “home court advantage”.
That’s the problem with this hearing. They (the Committee) don’t really seem to know why they’re there and conducting this farce in the first place. Okay, I’ve heard the “for complainants to vent” and the “in aid of legislation” excuses or reasons. Let’s look at those two.
For complainants to vent. It seems to me to be a denigration of Congress to be the forum for losing electoral candidates to vent. Why should they be given that opportunity there?
In aid of legislation. This would be well and good if we can actually divine from the proceedings that legislation will be aided. I would think such a noble goal (assuming we’re not kidding ourselves here) should be predicated on the Committee leadership being clear about this goal and actually policing the “resource persons” who have been invited to testify. We can’t have these largely unsubstantiated, mainly illogical and sometimes incoherent allegations go unfettered. I mean – how can these aid legislation if these allegations are not supported by plausible (o – hindi pa nga irrefutable) evidence, common sense and grounded in logic.
Ha! In my dreams talaga!
Going back to Barbers, I actually think that there is some merit into looking at his allegations. His thesis is that there was cheating because he, his running mate and the 21 mayoral candidates in his ticket all lost in their province. Of course, I’m not from his province so I can’t say whether such a sweep is possible or not but a typical person would say that – medyo mahirap naman mangyari yung ganun. So let’s have the appropriate authorities investigate these allegations while Barbers should earnestly document his case.
I would have been fine with that. Barbers couldn’t help himself, however, and tries to support his case with a tale about being approached by operators offering to rig the election in his slate’s favor for P50 million. I’m tempted to ask where was he going to get this kind of money? I mean if somebody approaches you like that they should have some clue of his ability to pay, right? Is government service really that lucrative (wink, wink)? Ok, ok – I’m speculating. Sorry, Ace.
Seriously, he should have had those people arrested right then and there. The least he could have done is inform the COMELEC “PRIOR” to the elections of this intent to commit electoral fraud. If I remember correctly, the oath of office for public officials goes something like this:
“…to uphold and defend the Constitution; to bear true faith and allegiance to it; obey the laws, legal orders and decrees promulgated by the duly constituted authorities; will well and faithfully discharge to the best of my ability the duties of the office; and that I voluntarily assume the obligation imposed by his oath of office, without mental reservation or purpose of evasion.”
I presume that as Governor part of the duties of his office is to uphold all laws and to cause the arrest of any and all who violate the law. So, when he chose to keep silent over what he alleges now – was Governor Barbers derelict in his duty to uphold the law?
With the seeming eloquence of Governor Barbers (notwithstanding the not so subtle put-downs by Teddy Boy), I wasn’t surprised when Rep. Mat Defensor and Laguna Governor Teresita Lazaro “corroborated’ the allegation of Gov. Barbers in lemming-like fashion. You know what they say about those lemmings (these small rodents of the Arctic tundra), they’ll follow those in front of them even if it’s off the top of a cliff.
To the meticulous among you, okay the lemming mass suicide is a myth but hey – somehow, the fiction seems more apropos than the facts in this case (if you know what I mean).
As for shutting James up, let me remind the good governor that he has no standing with the Committee other than as a resource person. As such, you cannot dictate how the hearings should go regardless of whether you are right or not (hard to decipher if Committee members don’t know what it’s about in the first place). The COMELEC, SMARTMATIC-TIM and other resource persons have as much right to whatever the losers, err complainants are allowed by the Committee. If these other people are not allowed to speak, how are they going to be able to aid legislation? Just because what they say makes more sense than what you say doesn’t give you the right to raise a point of order (ay – hindi ka pala talaga puwede mag-raise ng Point of Order at all). The esteemed Rep. Dumpit won’t be there all the time for you to get away with stuff.
And to Rep. Susano, could you kindly just stop. Please take your complaint to the COMELEC. If you can’t even understand why you were asked about your possession of STOLEN property (I take your word, they’re real), then just shush. And, don’t think you’ll be thought of as a hero for going to jail. To paraphrase Atty. Makalintal (can’t believe I’m actually attributing to this guy), you deserved to lose for committing the crime of omission.
Finally, a POINT OF ORDER – let me remind the kind Governor of the province of Surigao del Norte of his promise – no – his COMMITMENT to Congressman Locsin to name the operator who approached him and to produce those meteorological reports showing it only rained in the precincts he considers his bailiwicks. Don’t disappoint me – Ace. Be a man of your word.
“Mr. President, distinguished colleagues- I hold in my hand the documents to sustain the charges. In the national interest therefore I ask that the same be referred to the Blue Ribbon Committee and the Committee on Justice to conduct the needed investigation pursuant to pertinent provisions of the constitution and the statutes relevant thereto.”
– Vice President Teofisto Guingona, Jr.
MAKATI, Philippines – Vice President Guingona’s “I Accuse” is considered by many to be one of the more meaningful privilege speeches in the annals of the Philippine Senate. I admire the speech for its being able to succinctly lay out his case and recommend the appropriate course of action. No unnecessary verbiage. No unsubstantiated innuendoes and irrelevant hearsay. Just the facts and “the” what’s next.
I think of this as we suffer the through the antics of the “complainants” who have paraded before the House Committee on Electoral Reforms and Suffrage. First of all, I have to say that Teddy Boy Locsin should be admired for the delicate balancing act of having to consistently maintain his belief that there has been no systematic and widespread fraud in the conduct of elections while allowing the possibility of there being isolated incidents of such.
Nevertheless, we would have to wonder what the point of these hearings is. When asked by Congressman Golez this question during the first day of the hearings, Teddy Boy sort of waffled through an answer which was an unconvincing “in aid of legislation”. I’m not really sure what Congressman Locsin had in mind when he conceived of holding these hearings. I grant that as a primary mover of the automated election exercise he may have felt it his duty to provide a venue for critics and whiners to vent their complaints. I can, however, surmise that this was not the circus that he expected when this all began. It seems that the Committee leadership has lost control of these hearings.
I give Congressman Locsin credit for what I presume to be his noble intention but it takes two to tango, as they say. The complainants appear not to have played by the script turning the hearings instead into a quagmire of accusations based on hearsay, innuendo and worse, the pure lack of common sense. The hearings have turned into a venue for forum shopping and an arena for exacting their pound of flesh from the current flavour of the month –the SMARTMATIC-TIM guys.
If the Committee leadership chooses to continue with this charade, I would humbly suggest that they assert control over the proceedings. They have to go back to their intended purpose which is to aid legislation (I’m stretching here). One way would be to have the complainants read and submit their written accusations and any evidence to buttress their positions. Collate and organize these complaints and have the SMARTMATIC-TIM and COMELEC guys come back and answer these allegations. It is unfair to expect the “accused” to answer many of these complaints involving so and so precinct right then and there. By the time all these are done, all the Committee as currently constituted can do is pass on their findings to the next set of Committee members in the new Congress. In so doing, we might even be able to save some of these complainants from exposing their own ignorance.
For the complainants, wala namang silbi yung Committee na ‘to in resolving their protests. For Congressional candidates, I believe the proper body to address their complaints would be the House Electoral Tribunal which does not get formed until the next Congress gets sworn in. I’ve not heard Risa Hontiveros (sayang L) complaining, so nothing on the Senate front. And for the local candidates, if I’m not mistaken the appropriate adjudicating body is the COMELEC. Finally, if they are honest to goodness appearing in the hearings to aid legislation – ayusin niyo naman yung arguments and supporting evidence niyo.
I can’t help but make mention of Representative Susano. Has she even thought of the consequences of her possession of what she thinks is a smoking gun? First of all, if the “CFC” cards in her possession are legitimate, she is in possession of stolen property. Even if she did not steal these “CFC” cards herself, she is aiding and abetting in the commission of a crime. Second, what she should have done when she was presented the “CFC” cards was to inform the COMELEC of this anomaly and have the person or persons who had the cards arrested for any number of election offenses or simple plain robbery. She should know better (or maybe she doesn’t). I hope hindi palalampasin ‘to ng COMELEC, the House and law enforcement authorities or is that hoping for too much?
Talk as they say is cheap. I have heard (so don’t hold me to this) that one remedy in resolving election protests is to have a manual count of the ballots. I have heard a complainant, Rep. Raul Gonzales, proposing this. If this is correct, the complainant should be made to pay for the cost of doing so. This way, we make talk expensive or expose those who just want to hear themselves talk.
I think everyone agrees that the elections weren’t perfect but with what I know now:
- There has yet to be any credible evidence of widespread fraud in the elections; and,
- There has yet to be any credible and unchallenged* (by COMELEC or SMARTMATIC-TIM) evidence of fraud on the local level.
Frankly, I am sick and tired of all this. I am sure I am not alone when I say that I’m pulling for these elections to eventually be proven generally fair and honest. I am sure I am not alone when I say that I am pulling for the COMELEC commissioners and James Jimenez. In the credibility battle, Chairman Melo and his guys are still head and shoulders above Rep. Susano and her ilk.
I sincerely hope that we still have the same vision of having our nation rise above these challenges. I would also hope that anyone who feels wronged by this election show some restraint by pursuing resolution in the appropriate venues and not just play us for fools for the sake of another 15 minutes of fame.
My final appeal to them would be to think that the Filipino people that they say they are fighting for is having his psyche damaged by all the unnecessary doubt and uncertainty that this has engendered.
Ganito na ba talaga tayo – isang bansa ng manloloko?